Inventory of codes by content categories

Categories from Tiina Laitila: "Journalistic codes of ethics in Europe", European Journal of Communication, Vol. 10(4), December 1995. Classification by Juha Karilainen in 2008.

 

List of categories is after the table, followed by tables of sub-categories under 6 functions.

X indicates that the category is included and - that it is not included in the code in question.


 

Code / Category I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII Total
1. Albania X X X X X X X X X - X X X 12
2. Armenia X X X X X X X X X X - X X 12
3. Austria X - X X X X - - X - - X - 7
4. Azerbaijan X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
5. Belarus X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
6. Belgium X X X X - X - - X X X - - 8
7. Bosnia- Herzegovina X X X X X X X X X X - X X 12
8. Bulgaria X X X X X X - X X X X X X 12
9. Catalonia X X X X X X - X X X X X - 11
10. Croatia X X X X X X X X X - X X X 12
11. Cyprus X X X X X X X X X X - X X 12
12. Czech Republic X X X X X X - X X X X X X 12
13. Denmark X X X X X X - - X - X - - 8
14. Estonia X X X X X X X X X X X X - 12
15. Finland X X X X X X X X X - X - X 11
16. France X X - X X X - X X X - X X 10
17. Georgia X X X X X X X - X X X X X 12
18. Germany X X X X X X X X X X X X - 12
19. Greece X X X X X X - X X X X X X 12
20. Iceland X X - X X X - X X X X X X 11
21. Ireland X X X X X X - X X X X - X 11
22. Italy X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
23. Hungary X X X X X X X X X - X X X 12
24. Kosovo X X X X X X X - X - X X X 11
25. Latvia X X X X X X X - X X X - X 11
26. Lithuania X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
27. Luxembourg X X X X X X - X X X X X X 12
28. Macedonia X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
29. Malta X X - - X X - - X X X X X 9
30. Moldova X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
31. Montenegro X X X X X X X - X X X X X 12
32. Netherlands X X X X X X X X X - - X X 11
33. Norway X X X X X X - X X X X X X 12
34. Poland SDP X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
35. Poland SDRP X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
36. Poland MEC X X X X X X - - X - X X - 9
37. Portugal X X X X X X - X X - X - X 10
38. Romania X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
39. Russia X X - X X X X X X X X X X 12
40. Serbia X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
41. Slovakia X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
42. Slovenia X X X X X X - X X - X X X 11
43. Spain X X X X X X - X X X X X X 12
44. Sweden X X X X X X - X X - X X X 11
45. Switzerland X X X X X X X X X X X X X 13
46. Turkey X X X X X X - X X - X X - 10
47. Ukraine UEC X X X X X X X - X X X - X 11
48. Ukraine NUJU X X X X X X - X X X X X X 12
49. UK NUJ X X - X X X - X X X X - X 10
50. UK PCC X X X X X X - X - - - X - 8
Total 50 49 45 49 49 50 28 40 49 36 43 42 41


Content categories identified in individual codes

13 main categories, with sub-categories, under 6 functions according to Laitila 1995

Function 1. Accountability to the PUBLIC

I. Truthfulness of information

A. Truthfulness, honesty, accuracy of information
B. Essentiality of information
C. Diversity and plurality of information
D. Objectivity of information
E. Checking facts and sources
F. Correction of errors
G. Duty to publish press council's statements

II. Clarity of information

A. Separation of facts and opinions
B. Separation of advertisements and editorial material
C. Prohibition of selection and misrepresentation
D. Coverage of the headlines in the text
E. Mentioning the source of information

III. Defense of public's rights

A. Duty to serve as watchdog of powers
B. Freedom of expression, speech, comment, criticism
C. Public's right to express opinions
D. Respect for human rights and dignity

IV. Responsibilities in forming public opinion

A. Responsibility for everything reported
B. Prohibition of discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, etc.
C. Respect for good taste in expressions
D. Respect for common values
E. Prohibition of praising/inciting crimes and violence
F. Respect for other states and nations
G. Prohibition of praising alcohol or drug abuse

Function 2. Accountability to the SOURCES and REFERENTS

V. Gathering and presenting information

A. Fair means in gathering information
B. Respect for copyright and laws of citation
C. Respect for embargo
D. Right of the source to check correctness of information
E. Prohibition of slander, libel, unfounded accusations
F. Right to reply

VI. Integrity of the source

A. Respect for privacy
B. Professional secrecy
C. Special consideration in reporting crimes, accidents, etc.
D. Special consideration in interviewing children, mentally disabled, etc.
E. Presumption of innocence

Function 3. Accountability to the STATE

VII. Respect for the state institutions

A. Duty to observe laws
B. Protection of state interests

Function 4. Accountability to the EMPLOYER

VIII. Loyalty to the employer

A. Prohibition to misuse journalistic position in order to get personal benefits
B. Duty to work for good name of the profession
C. Respect for workplace rules
D. Prohibition to offer one's work to several publishers

Function 5. Protection of the PROFESSIONAL INTEGRITY

IX. General rights and prohibitions

A. Prohibition to accept bribes or any other benefits
B. Prohibition to allow outsiders to have influence on journalistic work
C. Right to free investigation
D. Right to free criticism
E. Freedom of the press

X. Protection from public powers

A. Fight against censorship
B. Rejection of the interference by public authorities
C. Professional secrecy

XI. Protection from employers and advertisers

A. Conscience clause
B. Right to refuse assignments contradictory to codes of ethics
C. Right to refuse assignments contradictory to editorial policy
D. Journalists' author's rights
E. Right to proper payment and/or working conditions
F. Right to take part in decision-making of the workplace
G. Duty to fight against concentration
H. Separation of advertisements and editorial material

Function 6. Protection of the STATUS and UNITY of the PROFESSION

XII. Protection of the status of journalism

A. Duty to work for the good name of the profession
B. Duty to follow code of ethics
C. Stress on special status of the profession
D. Avoidance of an interest conflict; incompatibility of journalism and other activities

XIII. Protection of the solidarity within profession

A. Respect for copyright and laws of citation
B. Defense of professional solidarity and laws of fair competition
C. Respect for professional organization

 

Sub-categories under 6 functions and 13 main categories

1. Accountability to the PUBLIC

Code/Category I
A
B C D E F G II
A
B C D E III
A
C D IV
A
B C D E F G Total
Albania X - X X X X - X X X - - X X - X - X X - X X - 16
Armenia X - X X X - X X - X - - X X - - - X - X X X - 13
Austria X - - X X - - - - - - -
- X - - X X - - - - - 6
Azerbaijan X - X X X X - X - X X X X X - - - X X - - - - 13
Belarus X X X X X X - X X X X X X X - - X X X - - - - 16
Belgium - - X X - X - X X - - - - X - X - X X - - - - 9
Bosnia and Herzegovina X - - X X X X X X X - X X X - X X X X X X X - 19
Bulgaria X - X - X X - X X X - X X X - X - X X - X - - 14
Catalonia - - X - X X - X - - - -
- X X X - X X - - - -
10
Croatia X - X X X - X - X X - X X X - X X X X X - - - 15
Cyprus X - - X - X - X - X - - X - - X - X X X - - - 10
Czech Republic X - - X X X - X - X - - X X - - X X - - - - - 10
Denmark X X - - X X - X X - X - - X - - - X - - - - - 9
Estonia X - - X X X - X X X X - X X - - X X - - - - - 12
Finland X - - - X X - X X X X - X X - X - X - - - - - 11
France X - - - - X - - - X - - - - - - X X - - - - - 6
Georgia X - - X X X - - X X - X X X X X - X - - - - - 12
Germany X - X - X X X X X X X - - X X X X X X - X - X 17
Greece X - - X X X - X X X X - - X - - - X X X - - - 12
Hungary X - X X X X X - X X - - X X - X - X X - X - - 14
Iceland X - - - - X X - X - - - - - - - X - - - - - - 5
Ireland X - - - - X - X - - - - X X - - - X - - - - - 6
Italy X - - X X X - - X X X -
X X - X X X - - - - - 13
Kosovo X X - - X X - X X X - - X X - - X - - X - - 11
Latvia X X X X X X - X X X - - - X - X X X - X X X X 17
Lithuania X X X X X X X X X - X - X - X - X - X X X X 18
Luxembourg X - - - X X - X X X - - - X - X - X - X X - - 11
Macedonia X - X X X X - X X X - X X - - X - X X X X - - 16
Malta X - X - X X X X - X - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7
Moldova - - - X X X - X X - - - - - - - X X X X X - - 10
Montenegro X X - X X X X X X X X - X X X X - X - - - X - 16
Netherlands X X - X X X - X - X - X - - - X X X - X - - - 12
Norway - X X - X X - X X X X X X X - - X X - - - - - 13
Poland MEC X - X X - X - X - X - - - - - X X - - - - - - 9
Poland SDP X - X X X X X X X X - - X - X - X X X - X - - 15
Poland SDRP X - - - X X X X X X - - - - - X X X X X X X - 14
Portugal X X X - - X - X - - - - - X - - X X - - - X - 9
Romania X - X X X X - X - - - - X X - X - X - X X - - 12
Russia X - - X X X - X - X - - - - - - X X - - - - - 9
Serbia X - X X X X - X X X - X X X - - - X X - X - - 14
Slovakia X - X X - X - X X X - - - X - X X X X X X - 15
Slovenia X - - X X X X - X X X X X X - - - X - - - X - 13
Spain X - X X X X X X X X - - - X - X - X X - - - 14
Sweden X - X X X X X X X X X X X X - - X X - - - - - 15
Switzerland X - - X X X - - - X - - X X - - - X - - - - - 8
Turkey X - - - X X - - X X - - - - - X - X - X - - - 9
Ukraine UEC - - - X X - - X X X - - X X - - - X - X X - - 10
Ukraine NUJU X - - X - X X - - X - - X X - X X X X X X - - 13
United Kingdom NUJ X - - - - X - X - - - - X X - - - X - - - - - 6
United Kingdom PCC X - - - - X X X - X - - X - - - X X - - X - - 9
Total 45 10 23 33 39 47 16 39 32 40 12 13 29 37 5 25 23 47 20 22 20 9 3

2. Accountability to the SOURCES and REFERENTS

Code/Category V
A
B C D E F VI
A
B C D E Total
Albania X X - - - X X X X X X 8
Armenia X X - - X - X X - - - 5
Austria X - - - X - X - X - - 4
Azerbaijan X X - - - X X X X X - 7
Belarus X X - - - X X X X X - 7
Belgium - - - - - - X X X - - 3
Bosnia and Herzegovina X X - - - X X X X X X 8
Bulgaria X X - - - X X X X X X 8
Catalonia X - - - - - X X X X -
5
Croatia X X X - - - X X X X - 7
Cyprus X X - - - X X X X X X 8
Czech Republic X X - - X - X X - X X 7
Denmark X - - - X X X - X - X 6
Estonia X - - - X X X X X X X 8
Finland X X - X - X X X X X X 9
France X X - - X - - X - - X 5
Georgia X X - - X X X X X X X 9
Germany X X - X - - X X X X X 8
Greece X - - - - - X X X X X 6
Hungary X X X X X X X X X X - 10
Iceland - - - - X - X - X X - 4
Ireland X X - - - - X X X - - 5
Italy X X - - X X X X X X - 8
Kosovo - X - - - X X X - - X 5
Latvia X X - X - X X X - X - 7
Lithuania X X - X X X X X X X X 10
Luxembourg X X - - - - X X - X X 6
Macedonia - X - - - X X X X X X 7
Malta X X - X X - X X X X - 8
Moldova X X - - X - X X X - X 7
Montenegro X X X - X X X X X X X 10
Netherlands X X X X X X - X - - - 7
Norway X X - - - X X X X X X 8
Poland MEC - - - - X - X - - - - 2
Poland SDP X - - - - - X X X X X 6
Poland SDRP - X - - - - X X - - X 4
Portugal X X - - X - X X X -
X 7
Romania X X - - - X X X X X X 8
Russia X X - - X - - X - - X 5
Serbia X - - - - X X X X - - 5
Slovakia X X - X X X X X X - - 8
Slovenia X X - - - X X X - X X 7
Spain X X - - - X X X X X - 7
Sweden X X - X - X X - X - X 7
Switzerland X X - - X - X X X - - 6
Turkey X X X - X X X X - - X 8
Ukraine UEC X X - - - - X X X - - 5
Ukraine NUJU X X - - - - - X - X - 4
United Kingdom NUJ X X - - - - X X X - - 5
United Kingdom PCC X - - - - X X X X X - 6
Total 44 39 5 9 21 27 46 45 37 30 27

3. Accountability to the STATE

Code/Category VII
A
B Total
Albania X - 1
Armenia - - -
Austria - - -
Azerbaijan - - -
Belarus X - 1
Belgium - - -
Bosnia and Herzegovina X - 1
Bulgaria - - -
Catalonia X - 1
Croatia X X 2
Cyprus - X 1
Czech Republic - - -
Denmark - - -
Estonia X - 1
Finland X - 1
France - - -
Georgia - - -
Germany X - 1
Greece - - -
Hungary X - 1
Iceland - - -
Ireland - - -
Italy X - 1
Kosovo - - -
Latvia - X 1
Lithuania X - 1
Luxembourg - - -
Macedonia X - 1
Malta - - -
Moldova X - 1
Montenegro - - -
Netherlands X - 1
Norway - - -
Poland MEC - - -
Poland SDP X - 1
Poland SDRP - - -
Portugal - - -
Romania - - -
Russia X - 1
Serbia - - -
Slovakia X - 1
Slovenia - - -
Spain - - -
Sweden - - -
Switzerland X - 1
Turkey - - -
Ukraine UEC X - 1
Ukraine NUJU - - -
United Kingdom NUJ - - -
United Kingdom PCC - - -
Total 19 3

4. Accountability to the EMPLOYER

Code/Category VIII
A
B C D Total
Albania X - X X 3
Armenia X - - - 1
Austria - - - - -
Azerbaijan X - - X 2
Belarus X X - X 3
Belgium - - - - -
Bosnia and Herzegovina - X - - 1
Bulgaria X - - - 1
Catalonia X X - - 2
Croatia X X - - 2
Cyprus X - - - 1
Czech Republic X - - - 1
Denmark - - - - -
Estonia X - - - 1
Finland X - - - 1
France X - - - 1
Georgia - - - - -
Germany X X - - 2
Greece X - - - 1
Hungary X - - X 2
Iceland - X - - 1
Ireland X - - - 1
Italy X - - - 1
Kosovo - - - - -
Latvia - - - - -
Lithuania X - X X 3
Luxembourg X X - - 2
Macedonia X - - - 1
Malta - - - - -
Moldova X - - - 1
Montenegro - - - - -
Netherlands X X - - 2
Norway X - - - 1
Poland MEC - - - - -
Poland SDP X - X - 2
Poland SDRP X X - - 2
Portugal X - - - 1
Romania X - - - 1
Russia X - - - 1
Serbia X - - - 1
Slovakia X - - - 1
Slovenia X - - X 2
Spain X - - - 1
Sweden X - - - 1
Switzerland - X - - 1
Turkey - X - - 1
Ukraine UEC - - - - -
Ukraine NUJU X X X - 3
United Kingdom NUJ X - - - 1
United Kingdom PCC X - - - 1
Total 36 12 4 6

5. Protection of the PROFESSIONAL INTEGRITY

Code/Category IX
A
B C D E X
A
B C XI
A
B C D E F G H Total
Albania X - X X X - - - - X - - - - - - 5
Armenia X - - - X X - - - - - - - - - - 3
Austria X X - X -
- - - - - - - - - - - 3
Azerbaijan X X - - - X - - - - X - - - - - 4
Belarus X X - X X X X X - - - - - - - X 8
Belgium - X X X - X - X - - - - - - - X 6
Bosnia and Herzegovina X - - X - X - X - - - - - - - - 4
Bulgaria X X - - X X X - - X - - - - - X 7
Catalonia X X X X -
X - X X - - - X - - - 8
Croatia X - X X X - - - - X X - - - - X 7
Cyprus X - X - X - - X - - - - - - - - 4
Czech Republic X X - - X X X - - - X - - - - X 7
Denmark X X - X -
- - - X X - - - - - X 6
Estonia X - X - X X - X X - - - - - - X 7
Finland X X X - - - - - X - X - - - - X 6
France X X - - -
- - - X - - - - - - - 3
Georgia X X X X - X X - - - X - - - - X 8
Germany X X - - - - X - - - - - - - X X 5
Greece X X - - X - X - - X X - X - X - 8
Hungary X X X X X - - - X - - - X - - X 8
Iceland X X - - -
- - X X - - - - - - X 5
Ireland - X - - X - - X - - - - - - - X 4
Italy X X X - -
X X X - X - - - - - X 8
Kosovo X - - X - - - - - - - - - - X - 3
Latvia X X - - - X - - X - - - - - - X 5
Lithuania X X - - X - - X - X X - X - - X 8
Luxembourg X X X X X X X X X X X - - - - - 11
Macedonia - X X - X X X X - X - - - - - X 8
Malta X - - - - - - X X - - - - - - X 4
Moldova X X - - - X X X - X - - - - - X 7
Montenegro X X X X - X X - - - X - - - - X 8
Netherlands - X - - X - - - - - - - - - - - 2
Norway X X X - X X - X X - - - - - - X 8
Poland MEC X X - - -
- - - X - - - - - - - 3
Poland SDP X X - - - - - - X X - - - - - X 5
Poland SDRP X X - - - - X X - - - X - - - X 6
Portugal X X - - -
- - - X - - - - - - - 3
Romania X - X - - X - X X X - X - - - X 8
Russia X X - X - - X - - X - X - - - - 6
Serbia X - X X - X X X - X X - - - X X 10
Slovakia X X X X -
- X - X - - - X X - X 9
Slovenia X X X - - - - - X X - X - - - X 7
Spain X X X X -
X - - X - X X X X X X 12
Sweden X X - - X - - - X - - - - - - X 5
Switzerland X X X X X X X X X X X - X X - X 14
Turkey - - - - -
X - - - - - - - - - X 2
Ukraine UEC X - - - - X X - - X - - - - - X 5
Ukraine NUJU X - - - - - X X - X X - - - - - 5
United Kingdom NUJ - X - - X - - X - - - - - - - X 4
United Kingdom PCC - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total 43 36 20 18 19 23 18 21 20 18 13 5 7 3 5 33

6. Protection of the STATUS and UNITY of the PROFESSION

Code/Category XII
A
B C D XIII
A
B C Total
Albania - X - - X X - 3
Armenia - - X X X - - 3
Austria - - X X - - - 2
Azerbaijan - - - X X - - 2
Belarus X X - X X X - 5
Belgium - - - - - - - -
Bosnia and Herzegovina X X - - X - - 3
Bulgaria - X - X X X - 4
Catalonia X X - X - - - 3
Croatia X X - X X X - 5
Cyprus X X - - X - - 3
Czech Republic X X X X X - - 5
Denmark - - - - - - - -
Estonia - - - X - - - 1
Finland - - - - X - - 1
France - - X X X X - 4
Georgia - - X X X - - 3
Germany X - - X - - - 2
Greece X - X - X X X 5
Hungary X X X X X X - 6
Iceland X - X X - X X 5
Ireland - - - - X - - 1
Italy - - - X X - - 2
Kosovo - X - X X - - 3
Latvia - - - - X - - 1
Lithuania X X X X X X - 6
Luxembourg X - - - X - - 2
Macedonia X X X - X X - 5
Malta - X - - X - - 2
Moldova - X X X X X - 5
Montenegro X X - X X X - 5
Netherlands - - - X X - - 2
Norway - X X X X - - 4
Poland MEC - X - - - - - 1
Poland SDP - X - X - X - 3
Poland SDRP X - - - X X - 3
Portugal - - - - X - - 1
Romania - - X X X - - 3
Russia - X - X - X - 3
Serbia X X - X X X - 5
Slovakia - - - X X X - 3
Slovenia - - - X X X - 3
Spain - X - X X - - 3
Sweden - - X X X - - 3
Switzerland X X X - X - X 5
Turkey X - X - - - - 2
Ukraine UEC - - - - X - - 1
Ukraine NUJU X - - - X X - 3
United Kingdom NUJ - - - - X - - 1
United Kingdom PCC - X - - - - - 1
Total 19 23 16 29 38 19 3